Potential Drift Accumulation at Bridges

REFERENCES

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1989, Standard specifications for highway bridges (14th ed.): Washington D.C., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 420 p.

Andrus, C.W., Long, B.A., and Froehlich, H.A., 1988, Woody debris and its contribution to pool formation in a coastal stream 50 years after logging: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 45, no. 12, p. 2080-2086.

Apelt, C.J., 1986a, Flood loads on submerged bridges: Institution of Engineers Australia (Queensland Division), Queensland Division Technical Papers, v. 27, no. 19, Publication No. QBG 1756, p. 17-23.

Apelt, C.J., 1986b, Flood forces on bridges: Proceedings 13th AARB -- 5th REAAA Combined Conference, Adelaide, 25-29 August 1986, v. 13, part 6, Bridges, p. 40-46.

Avent, R.R., and Whitmer, M.D., 1990, Underwater inspection of bridges -- overview of a statewide program, in Transportation Research Record, Highway Maintenance Operations and Research, No. 1268: Washington D.C., Transportation Research Board, p. 118-129.

Bathurst, J.C., 1988, Flow processes and data provision for channel flow models, in Modelling geomorphological systems: John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 127-152.

Bathurst, J.C., Thorne, C.R., and Hey, R.D., 1977, Direct measurements of secondary currents in river bends: Nature, v. 269, no. 5628, p. 504-506, October 6, 1977.

Bathurst, J.C., Thorne, C.R., and Hey, R.D., 1979, Secondary flow and shear stress at river bends: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, v. 105, no. HY10, Proceedings Paper 14906, p. 1277-1295, October 1979.

Becker, L.D., 1994, Investigation of bridge scour at selected sites on Missouri streams: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4200, 40 p.

Benke, A.C., Henry, R.L., II, Gillespie, D.M., and Hunter, R.J., 1985, Importance of snag habitat for animal production in southeastern streams: Fisheries, v. 10, no. 5, p. 8-13.

Benke, A.C., and Meyer, J.L., 1988, Structure and function of a blackwater river in the southeastern U.S.A.: Internationale Vereinigung fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, Verhandlungen, v. 23, no. 2, p. 1209-1218.

Benke, A.C., and Wallace, J.B., 1990, Wood dynamics in coastal plain blackwater streams: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 47, no. 1, p. 92-99.

Bilby, R.E., 1985, Influence of stream size on the function and characteristics of large organic debris, in Industry, State, and Federal Programs Designed to Assess and Protect Water Quality Associated with Managed Western Forests: New York, N.Y., National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., Technical Bulletin No. 466, p. 1-14.

Bilby, R.E., and Likens, G.E., 1980, Importance of organic debris dams in the structure and function of stream ecosystems: Ecology, v. 61, no. 5, p. 1107-1113.

Bilby, R.E., and Ward, J.W., 1989, Changes in characteristics and function of woody debris with increasing size of streams in western Washington: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, v. 118, no. 4, p. 368-378.

Bilby, R.E., and Wasserman, L.J., 1989, Forest practices and riparian management in Washington State: data based regulation development, in Gresswell, R.E., and others, eds., Riparian Resource Management: Billings, Mont., U.S. Bureau of Land Management, p. 87-94.

Bisson, P.A., Bilby, R.E., Bryant, M.D., Andrew, C.D., Grette, G.B., House, R.A., Murphy, M.L., Koski, K.V., and Sedell, J.R., 1987, Large woody debris in forested streams in the Pacific Northwest: past, present, and future, in Salo, E.O., and Cundy, T.W., eds., Proceedings of the Symposium on Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions: Seattle, Wash., University of Washington, p. 143-190.

Blodgett, J.C., 1984, Effect of bridge piers on streamflow and channel geometry: Transportation Research Record No. 950, p. 172-182.

Bowser, F.W., and Tsai, M.C., 1973, Hurricane Agnes - damage in Pennsylvania: Highway Research Record No. 479, p. 12-14.

Brice, J.C., Blodgett, J.C., Carpenter, P.J., Cook, M.F., Craig, G.S., Jr., Eckhardt, D.A., Hines, M.S., Lindskov, K.L., Moore, D.O., Parker, R.S., Scott, A.G., and Wilson, K.V., 1978a, Countermeasures for hydraulic problems at bridges, Volume 1 - analysis and assessment: Washington, D.C., Federal Highway Administration Report No. FHWA-RD-78-162, 169 p. [Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB-297 132.]

Brice, J.C., Blodgett, J.C., Carpenter, P.J., Cook, M.F., Craig, G.S., Jr., Eckhardt, D.A., Hines, M.S., Lindskov, K.L., Moore, D.O., Parker, R.S., Scott, A.G., and Wilson, K.V., 1978b, Countermeasures for hydraulic problems at bridges, Volume 2 - case histories for sites 1-283: Washington D.C., Federal Highway Administration Report No. FHWA-RD-78-163, 542 p. [Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB-297 685.]

Brookes, Andrew, 1988, Channelized rivers: perspectives for environmental management: Guildford, U.K., John Wiley and Sons, 326 p.

Bryan, B.A., Simon, Andrew, Outlaw, G.S., and Thomas, Randy, 1995, Methods for assessing channel conditions related to scour-critical conditions at bridges in Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4229, 54 p.

Bryant, M.D., 1980, Evolution of large, organic debris after timber harvest: Maybeso Creek, 1949 to 1978: Portland, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical report PNW-101, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 30 p.

Bryant, M.D., 1983, The role and management of woody debris in west coast salmonid nursery streams: North American Journal of Fisheries Management, v. 3, no. 3, p. 322-330.

Bryant, M.D., 1985, Changes 30 years after logging in large woody debris, and its use by salmonids, in Johnson R.R., Ziebell C.D., Paton, D.R., Ffolliott, P.F., and Hamre, R.H. (coordinators), Riparian ecosystems and their management -- reconciling conflicting uses: Rocky Mountains Forestry and Range Experiment Station General Technical Report, p. 329-334.

Calver, J.L., 1969, Natural features caused by a catastrophic storm in Nelson and Amherst Counties, Virginia: Charlottesville, Virginia, Division of Mineral Resources, Department of Conservation and Economic Development, Commonwealth of Virginia (Special issue of quarterly periodical Virginia Minerals, October, 1969), 20 p.

Carlson, J.Y., Andrus, C.W., and Froehlich, H.A., 1990, Woody debris, channel features, and macroinvertebrates of streams with logged and undisturbed riparian timber in northeastern Oregon, U.S.A.: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 47, no. 6, p. 1103-1111.

Chang, F.F.M., 1973, A statistical summary of the cause and cost of bridge failures: Federal Highway Administration, Office of Research and Development, Report No. FHWA-RD-75-87, 42 p.

Chang, F.F.M., and Shen, H.W., 1979, Debris problems in the river environment: Federal Highway Administration Report No. FHWA-RD-79-62, 67 p.

Chergui, H., and Pattee, E., 1991, Breakdown of wood in the side arm of a large river: preliminary investigations: Internationale Vereinigung fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, Verhandlungen, v. 24, no. 3, p. 1785-1788.

Cherry, J., and Beschta, R.L., 1989, Coarse woody debris and channel morphology: a flume study: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 25, no. 5, p. 1031-1036.

Chiu, C.L. and Hsiung, D.E., 1981, Secondary flow, shear stress, and sediment transport: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, v. 107, no. HY7, p. 879-898, July 1981.

Crockett, David, 1955, The Life of Davy Crockett, by Himself: New York, Signet Books, 263 p.

Damaskinidou-Georgiadou, A., and Smith, K.V.H., 1986, Flow in curved converging channel: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (ASCE) v. 112, no. 6, p. 476-496.

Diehl, T.H., 1994, Causes and effects of valley plugs in West Tennessee, in Sale, M.J., and Wadlington, R.O., eds., Proceedings of extended abstracts, responses to changing multiple-use demands; new directions for water resources planning and management: Nashville, American Water Resources Association, p. 97-100.

Diehl, T.H., and Bryan, B.A., 1993, Supply of large woody debris in a stream channel, in Shen, H.W., Su, S.T., and Wen, Feng, eds., Hydraulic Engineering '93, proceedings of the 1989 national conference on hydraulic engineering: New York, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 1055-1060.

Dongol, D.M., 1989, Effect of debris rafting on local scour at bridge piers: Auckland, University of Auckland Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering Report No. 473, 100 p.

Duncan, S.H., Bilby, R.E., Ward, J.W., and Heffner, J.T., 1987, Transport of road-surface sediment through ephemeral stream channels: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 23, no. 1, p. 113-119.

Dykstra, D.P., and Froehlich, H.A., 1976, Stream protection: what does it cost?, in Loggers Handbook: Portland, Oregon, Pacific Logging Congress, v. 36.

Edwards, L.N., 1959, A record of history and evolution of early American bridges: Orono, Maine, University Press.

Elliot, K.R. and Baker, C.J., 1985, Effect of pier spacing on scour around bridge piers: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 111, no. 7, p. 1105-1109.

Elliott, S.C., and Sellin, R.H., 1990, SERC Flood Channel Facility: skewed flow experiments: Journal of Hydraulic Research, v. 28, no. 2, p. 197-214.

Engineering News-Record, 1980, Memphis bridge fails after piling erosion: Engineering News-Record, March 27, p. 19-20.

Everitt, B.L., 1968, Use of the cottonwood in an investigation of the recent history of a floodplain: American Journal of Science, v. 266, p. 417-439.

Foster, J.E., 1988, Jefferson Barracks Bridge, moveable-bed model study: Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Miscellaneous paper HL-88-7 [Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as NTIS Report AD-A199359.], 56 p.

Froehlich, H.A., 1973, Natural and man-caused slash in headwater streams, in Loggers Handbook: Portland, Oregon, Pacific Logging Congress, v. 33.

Gannett Fleming Corddry and Carpenter, Engineers, 1974, Tropical Storm Agnes, June, 1972, post flood report, volume II, damage and recovery: Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army Engineer District, Baltimore.

Gippel, C.J., 1989, The hydraulic, hydrologic, and geomorphic significance of large woody debris (snags) in streams and rivers, in Proceedings of the State of Our Rivers Conference, 28-29 September 1989: Canberra, The Australian National University, Centre for Continuing Education.

Gippel, C.J., O'Neill, I.C., and Finlayson, B.L., 1992, The hydraulic basis of snag management: Melbourne, University of Melbourne, Center for Environmental Applied Hydrology, 116 p.

Golladay, S.W., and Webster, J.R., 1988, Effects of clear-cut logging on wood breakdown in Appalachian mountain streams: American Midland Naturalist, v. 119, no. 1, p. 143-155.

Gregory, K.J., Gurnell, A.M., and Hill, C.T., 1985, The permanence of debris dams related to river channel processes: Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques, v. 30, no. 3, p. 371-381.

Hammer, R.G., 1989, Forest headwaters riparian road construction and timber harvest guidelines to control sediment, in Woessner, W.W., and Potts, D.F., eds., Proceedings of the Symposium on Headwaters Hydrology: Bethesda, Maryland, American Water Resources Association, p. 277-285.

Harik, I.E., Shaaban, A.M., Gesund, H., Valli, G.Y.S., and Wang, S.T., 1990, Bridge failures, 1951-1988: Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, v. 4, no. 4, p. 272-277.

Harmon, M.E., Franklin, J.F., Swanson, F.J., Sollins, P., Gregory, S.V., Lattin, J.D., Anderson, N.H., Cline, S.P., Aumen, N.G., Sedell, J.R., Lienkaemper, G.W., Cromack, K., Jr., and Cummins, K.W., 1986, Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems: Advances in Ecological Research, v. 15, p. 133-302.

Harr, R.D., 1976, Hydrology of small forest streams in western Oregon: Portland, Oregon, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-164, 15 p.

Hauer, F.R., 1989, Organic matter transport and retention in a blackwater stream recovering from flow augmentation and thermal discharge: Regulated Rivers Research and Management, v. 4, no. 4, p. 371-380.

Heede, R.H., 1985, Channel adjustments to the removal of log steps: an experiment in a mountain stream: Environmental Management, v. 9, p. 427-432.

Helmericks, Constance, 1968, Down the wild river north: Boston, Little, Brown, and Company.

Highway Research Board, 1970, Scour at bridge waterways: Washington, D.C., National Cooperative Highway Research Program of Synthesis of Highway Practice, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences - National Academy of Engineering, Report No. 5, 37 p.

Hogan, D.L., 1987, The influence of large organic debris on channel recovery in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada, in Beschta, R.L., Blinn, T., Grant, G.E., Ice, G.G., and Swanson, F.J., Erosion and Sedimentation in the Pacific Rim, Proceedings of the Corvallis Symposium, August 1987: Corvallis, Oregon State University, IAHS Publication 165, p. 343-353.

Hopkins, G.R., Vance, R.W., and Kasraie, B., 1980, Scour around bridge piers: Washington, D.C., Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA-RD-79-103, 141 p.

Huizinga, R.J., and Waite, L.A., 1994, Methodology for the assessment of scour at bridge sites in Missouri: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-544, 23 p.

Ice, G.G., and Lawrence, W.H., 1985, A status report on the forest manager's guide to stream management, in Industry, state, and federal programs designed to assess and protect water quality associated with managed western forests: New York, N.Y., National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., Technical Bulletin No. 466, p. 14-20.

Johannesson, H., and Parker, G., 1989, Secondary flow in mildly sinuous channel: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (ASCE), v. 115, no. 3, p. 289-308.

Keller, E.A., and Swanson, F.J., 1979, Effects of large organic material on channel form and fluvial processes: Earth Surface Processes, v. 4, p. 361-380.

Keller, E.A., and Tally, T., 1979, Effects of large organic material on channel form and fluvial processes in the coastal redwood environment, in Rhodes, D.D., and Williams, G.P. eds., Adjustments of the Fluvial System: A proceedings volume of the Tenth Annual Geomorphology Symposia series held at Binghamton, New York, September 21-22, 1979: Binghamton, State University of New York, p. 169-197.

Kennedy, R.J., 1962, The forces involved in pulpwood holding grounds: Montreal, Canada, Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Technical Report No. 292, 207 p.

Kennedy, R.J., and Lazier, 1965, The water transportation of pulpwood; III. Structures, chapter II. Booms, reproduced in Perham, R.E., 1987, Floating debris control; a literature review: U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Technical Report REMR-HY-2, 63 p. [Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.]

Klein, Randy, Sonnevil, Ronald, and Short, D.A., 1987, Effects of woody debris removal on sediment storage in a northwest California stream, in Erosion and sedimentation in the Pacific Rim: Washington D.C., International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Publication No. 165, p. 403-404.

Klingeman, P.C., 1971, Prediction of pier scour in western Oregon: U.S. Department of Transportation, Region 8, 226 p.

Klingeman, P.C., 1973, Hydrologic evaluations in bridge pier scour design: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, v. 99, no. HY12, paper 10224, p. 2175-2184.

Knight, D.W., and Shiono, K., 1990, Turbulence measurements in a shear layer region of a compound channel: Journal of Hydraulic Research, v. 28, no. 2, p. 175-196.

Kochel, R.C., Ritter, D.F., and Miller, Jerry, 1987, Role of tree dams in the construction of pseudo-terraces and variable geomorphic response to floods in Little River valley, Virginia: Geology, v. 15, p. 718-721.

Lagasse, P.F., Schall, J.D., Johnson, F., Richardson, E.V., Richardson, J.R., and Chang, F., 1991, Stream stability at highway structures: Washington, D.C., Federal Highway Administration Report No. FHWA-IP-90-014, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 20, 195 p.

Lambeston, H.C., Jr., Sainz, A.J., Crawford, R.A., Ogletree, W.B., and Gunn, J.E., 1981, Underwater inspection and repair of bridge structures: Transportation Safety Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program synthesis of highway practice 88, 77 p.

LaPointe, M.F., and Carson, M.A., 1986, Migration patterns of an asymmetric meandering river: the Rouge River, Quebec: Water Resources Research, v. 22, no. 5, p. 731-743.

Laursen, E.M., and Toch, Arthur, 1956, Scour around bridge piers and abutments: Iowa Highway Research Board, Bulletin No. 4, 60 p.

Lienkaemper, G.W., and Swanson, F., 1980, Changes in large organic debris in forested streams, western Oregon: Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, 76th, v. 12, p. 116.

Likens, G.E., and Bilby, R.E., 1982, Development, maintenance and role of organic debris dams in New England streams, in Sediment Budgets and Routing in Forested Drainage Basins: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-141, p. 122-128.

Linder, W.M., 1967, Erosion experience downstream of bed stabilization and water level control structures, in Proceedings, Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, September 11-14, 1967, v. 3, Erosion and local scour downstream from hydraulic structures: Fort Collins, International Association for Hydraulic Research, 1967, p. 135-142.

Lyell, Sir C., 1856, Principles of Geology (6th ed.): New York, D. Appleton and Company, 816 p.

MacDonald, Anne, and Keller, E.A., 1987, Stream channel response to the removal of large woody debris, Larry Damm Creek, northwestern California, in Erosion and sedimentation in the Pacific Rim: Washington, D.C., International Association of Hydrological Sciences, IAHS Publication No. 165, p. 405-406.

Makowski, P.B., Thompson, P.L., and Yew, C.P., 1989, Scour assessment at bridges, in Hydraulic Engineering -- Proceedings of the 1989 National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering: New York, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 1-6.

Malanson, G.P., and Butler, D.R., 1990, Woody debris, sediment, and riparian vegetation of a subalpine river, Montana, U.S.A.: Arctic Alpine Research, v. 22, no. 2, p. 183-194.

Martin, S.K., 1989, Model study of potential debris problems at the proposed diversion of Clover Fork River, Harlan, Kentucky, in Hydraulic Engineering -- Proceedings of the 1989 National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering: New York, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 589-594.

McFadden, Terry, and Stallion, Michael, 1976, Debris of the Chena River: Hanover, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 76-26, 17 p. [Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 as NTIS Report ADA-029 357.]

Megahan, W.F., 1982, Channel sediment storage behind obstructions in forested drainage basins draining the granitic bedrock of the Idaho Batholith, in Sediment Budgets and Routing in Forested Drainage Basins: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-141, p. 122-128.

Melville, B.W., and Dongol, D.M., 1992, Bridge pier scour with debris accumulation: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 118, no. 9, p. 1306-1310.

Melville, B.W., and Sutherland, A.J., 1988, Design method for local scour at bridge piers: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 114, no. 10, p. 1210-1226.

Mendenhall, William, Scheaffer, R.L., and Wackerly, D.D., 1981, Mathematical statistics with applications (2nd ed.): Boston, Duxbury Press, 686 p.

Mueller, D.S., and Dardeau, E.A., Jr., 1990, Impact of changes in suspended-sediment loads on the regime of alluvial rivers: Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Potamology Program (P-1) Report 6, 134 p.

Murgatroyd, A.L., and Ternan, J.L., 1983, The impact of afforestation on stream bank erosion and channel form: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 8, p. 357-369.

Murphy, M.L., and Koski, K.V., 1989, Input and depletion of woody debris in Alaska streams and implications for streamside management: North American Journal of Fisheries Management v. 9, no. 4, p. 427-436.

Naiman, R.J., Meliello, J.M., and Hobbie, John, 1986, Ecosystems alteration of boreal forest streams by beaver: Ecology, v. 67, no. 5, p. 1254-1269.

National Association of Australian State Road Authorities, 1976, NAASRA bridge design specification: Sydney, National Association of Australian State Road Authorities.

National Transportation Safety Board, 1990, Highway accident report - collapse of the Harrison Road Bridge spans, Miamitown, Ohio, May 26, 1989: Washington, D.C., National Transportation Safety Board, 45 p.

Neill, C.R., ed., 1973, Guide to bridge hydraulics: Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 191 p.

Nouh, M.A., and Townsend, R.D., 1979, Shear-stress distribution in stable channel bends: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, v. 105, no. HY10, Proceedings Paper 14898, p. 1233-1245.

Nunnally, N.R., and Keller, E.A., 1979, Use of fluvial processes to minimize adverse effects of stream channelization: Raleigh, Water Resources Research Institute of The University of North Carolina, Report UNC-WRRI-79-144, 115 p.

O'Donnell, C.L., 1973, Observation on the causes of bridge damage in Pennsylvania and New York due to Hurricane Agnes: Highway Research Record, no. 479, p. 20-36.

Orme, A.R., 1990, Recurrence of debris production under coniferous forest, Cascade foothills, northwest United States, in Thornes, J.B., ed., Vegetation and Erosion: processes and environments: Chichester, England, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., p. 67-84.

Pangallo, J.D., Gray, Teresa, Land, Walter, and Toillion, S.E., 1992, Bridge span lengths for passage of drift: Indianapolis, Indiana Department of Transportation, 11 p.

Pierson, T.C., and Costa, J.E., 1987, A rheologic classification of subaerial sediment-water flows, in Costa, J.E., and Wieczorek, G/.F., eds., Debris flows/avalanches: process, recognition, and mitigation (Reviews in engineering geology; v. 7): Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, p. 1-12.

Perham R.E., 1987, Floating debris control; a literature review: U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Technical Report REMR-HY-2, 63 p. [Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.]

Perham, R.E., 1988, Elements of floating-debris control systems: Washington, D.C., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Technical Report REMR-HY-3, 69 p.

Prasuhn, A.L., 1981, Modeling scour at highway bridges due to debris accumulation, in Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference, 5th, Fredericton, New Brunswick, 1981, Proceedings: Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, p. 423-442.

Preston, R.J., 1976, North American Trees (3rd ed.): Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press, 399 p.

Richardson, E.V., and Davis, S.R., 1995, Evaluating scour at bridges: Washington, D.C., Federal Highway Administration Report No. FHWA-IP-90-017, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18, (3rd ed.), 204 p.

Richardson, E.V., Harrison, L.J., and Davis, S.R., 1991, Evaluating scour at bridges: Washington, D.C., Federal Highway Administration Report No. FHWA-IP-90-017, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18, 191 p.

Robison, E.G., and Beschta, R.L., 1990a, Identifying trees in riparian areas that can provide coarse woody debris to streams: Forest Science, v. 36, no. 3, p. 790-801.

Robison, E.G., and Beschta, R.L., 1990b, Characteristics of coarse woody debris for several coastal streams of southeast Alaska, U.S.A.: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 47, p. 1684-1693.

Rowe, R.R., 1974, Discussion of procedure paper 10224, Hydraulic evaluations in bridge pier scour design: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, v. 100, no. HY8, p. 1190-1192.

Saunders, Selden, and Oppenheimer, M.L., 1993, A method of managing floating debris, in Shen, H.W., Su, S.T., and Wen, Feng, eds., Hydraulic Engineering '93, proceedings of the 1989 national conference on hydraulic engineering: New York, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 1373-1378.

Sedell, J.R., Bisson, P.A., Swanson, F.J., and Gregory, S.V., 1988, What we know about large trees that fall into streams and rivers, Chapter 3 of Maser, C., Tarrant, R.F., Trappe, J.M., and Franklin, J.F., eds., From the forest to the sea: A story of fallen trees: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-229, p. 47-81.

Sedell, J.R., and Duval, W.S., 1985, Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in western north America, Part 5, Water transportation and storage of logs: Corvallis, Oregon, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest General Technical Report PNW-186, 68 p.

Sedell, J.R., and Frogatt, J.L., 1984, Importance of streamside forests to large rivers: the isolation of the Williamette River, Oregon, U.S.A., from its floodplain by snagging and streamside forest removal: Internationale Vereinigung fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, Verhandlungen, v. 22, p. 1828-1834.

Sedell, J.R., Reeves, G.H., Hauer, F.R., Stanford, J.A., and Hawkins, C.P., 1990, Role of refugia in recovery from disturbances: modern fragmented and disconnected river systems: Environmental Management, v. 14, no. 5, p. 711-724.

Shearman, J.O., 1990, User's manual for WSPRO -- a computer model for water surface profile computations (Hydraulic computer program HY-7): Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-IP-89-027, 187 p.

Shearman, J.O., Kirkby, W.H., Schneider, V.R., and Flippo, H.N., 1986, Bridge waterways analysis model-research report: U.S. Geological Survey and the Federal Highway Administration, Office of Research and Development, FHWA/RD-86/108, 126 p.

Shen, H.W., Schumm, S.A., Nelson, J.D., Doehring, D.O., Skinner, M.M., and Smith, G.L., 1981, Methods for assessment of stream-related hazards to highways and bridges: Washington D.C., Federal Highway Administration, Report No FHWA/RD-80/160, 252 p. [Available from National Technical Information service, Springfield, VA 22161 as PB81-219750.]

Sherrill, James, and Kelly, Sean, 1992, Using scour and stream instability evaluations to increase bridge safety: Public Works, June, 1992, p. 56-57.

Shields, F.D., Jr., and Gippel, C.J., 1995, Prediction of effects of woody debris removal on flow resistance: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, v. 121, no. 4, p. 341-354.

Shields, F.D., Jr., and Nunnally, N.R., 1984, Environmental aspects of clearing and snagging: Journal of Environmental Engineering, v. 110, no. 1, p. 152-165.

Shields, F.D., Jr., and Smith, R.H., 1991, Large woody debris effects on channel friction factor, in Proceedings of the 1991 National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering: New York, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 757-762.

Shine, Mary-Jo, 1985, Effect of riparian vegetation on stream morphology: unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 82 p.

Simon, Andrew, and Hupp, C.R., 1992, Geomorphic and vegetative recovery processes along modified stream channels of West Tennessee: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 91-502, 142 p.

Smith, D.W., 1976, Bridge failures: Proceedings, Institution of Civil Engineers, August, p. 367-382.

Smith, R.H., and Shields, F.D., Jr., 1990, Effects of clearing and snagging on physical conditions of rivers, in Proceedings, Twentieth Mississippi Water Resources Conference, April 10-11, 1990: Jackson, Miss., Water Resources Institute, Mississippi State University, p. 41-51.

Smith, R.H., Shields, F.D., Jr., Dardeau, E.A., Jr., Schaefer, T.E., Jr., and Gibson, A.C., 1992, Incremental effects of large woody debris removal on physical aquatic habitat: Washington, D.C., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Technical Report EL-92-35, 83 p.

Smock, L.A., Metzler, G.W., and Gladden, J.E., 1989, Role of debris dams in the structure and functioning of low-gradient, headwater streams: Ecology, v. 70, p. 764-775.

Strautman, A., Cruise, J., and Argialas, D., 1987, Analysis of scour problems at Louisiana bridges, in Hydraulic engineering, Proceedings of the 1987 National Conference: New York, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 517-522.

Swanson, F.J., Bryant, M.D., Lienkaemper, G.W., and Sedell, J.R., 1984, Organic debris in small streams, Prince of Wales Island, Southeast Alaska: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-166, 12 p.

Swanson, F.J., and Lienkaemper, G.W., 1978, Physical consequences of large organic debris in Pacific Northwest streams: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-69, 12 p.

Tanaka, Shigeru, and Yano, Motoaki, 1967, Local scour around a circular cylinder, in Proceedings, Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, September 11-14, 1967, v. 3, Erosion and local scour downstream from hydraulic structures: Fort Collins, International Association for Hydraulic Research, 1967, p. 193-201.

Thomas, Zdenek, 1967, An interesting hydraulic effect occurring at local scour, in Proceedings, Twelfth Congress of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, September 11-14, 1967, v. 3, Erosion and local scour downstream from hydraulic structures: Fort Collins, International Association for Hydraulic Research, 1967, p. 125-134.

Thorne, C.R., 1990, Effects of vegetation on riverbank erosion and stability, in Thornes, J.B., ed., Vegetation and erosion -- processes and environments: Chichester, England, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., p. 67-84.

Thorne, C.R., and Hey, R.D., 1979, Direct measurements of secondary currents at a river inflexion point: Nature, v. 280, no. 5719, p. 226-228.

Thorne, C.R., Zevenbergen, L.W., Pitlick, J.C., Rais, S., and Bradley, J.B., 1985, Direct measurements of secondary currents in a meandering sand-bed river: Nature, v. 315, no. 6022, p. 746-747.

Tison, L.J., 1961, Local scour in rivers: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 66, no. 12, p. 4227-4232.

Toebes, G.H., and Sooky, A., 1967, Hydraulics of meandering rivers with floodplains: Journal of the Waterways and Harbors division, ASCE, v. 93, no. WW2, Proceedings paper 5240, May 1967, p. 1053-1066.

Tominaga, A., Nezu, I., Ezaki, K., and Nakagawa, H., 1989, Three-dimensional turbulent structure in straight open channel flows: Journal of Hydraulic Research, v. 27, no. 1, p. 149-173.

Triska, F.J., 1984, Role of wood debris in modifying channel geomorphology and riparian areas of a large lowland river under pristine conditions: A historical case study: Internationale Vereinigung fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, Verhandlungen, v. 22, p. 1876-1892.

Triska, F.J., and Cromack, K., 1980, The role of wood debris in forests and streams, in Waring, R.H., ed., Forests -- Fresh perspectives from ecosystem analysis: Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University Press, Proceedings, 40th biology colloquium, p. 171-190.

Turner, Roger, 1992, [untitled photograph of a hydraulic log-picker mounted on a pulp truck, waiting for drift to come down the Pine River]: Wisconsin State Journal, Madison, Wis., issue of September 17, 1992.

Wallace, J.B., and Benke, A.C., 1984, Quantification of wood habitat in subtropical coastal plain streams: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, v. 41, p. 1643-1652.

Ward, G.M., and Aumen, N.G., 1986, Woody debris as a source of fine particulate organic matter in coniferous forest stream ecosystems: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 43, no. 8, p. 1635-1642.

Wellwood, N., and Fenwick, J., 1990, A flood loading methodology for bridges, in Proceedings, 15th Australian Road Research Board Conference, August 1990: Australian Road Research Board, p. 315-341.

Williams, P.B., 1990, Rethinking flood-control channel design: Civil Engineering, January 1990.

Wright, K.B., and Harrison, C.J., 1990, Replacement of the Wairoa Bridge following scour failure, in Developments in short and medium span bridge engineering '90: [publishing agency not identified], p. 249-258.

Young, J.H., 1837, New Map of Texas, with the contiguous American and Mexican States: Philadelphia, S. Augustus Mitchell.

Young, W.J., 1991, Flume study of the hydraulic effects of large woody debris in lowland rivers: Regulated Rivers Research and Management, v. 6, p. 203-211.

Zimmerman, R.C., Goodlet, J.C., and Comer, G.H., 1967, The influence of vegetation on channel form in small streams, in Proceedings of the Symposium on River Morphology: International Association of Scientific Hydrology, Publication no. 75, p. 255-275.


previous || table of contents


U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Maintainer:webmaster@tn.water.usgs.gov
Last update: Tuesday, 08-Jan-2013 14:46:58 EST
URL: http://tn.water.usgs.gov /pubs/FHWA-RD-97-028/references.htm
USGS Privacy Policy || Disclaimer